—Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacon networks are one common infrastructure for IoT and smart city applications because of their scalability and affordability, as well as the proliferation of Bluetooth-enabled devices. However, BLE beacon networks suffer from short battery lifetime, which induces additional maintenance costs. In this paper, we propose a novel user existence-aware BLE beacon firmware, User-B, that extends BLE beacon lifetime by changing its operating configuration. Leveraging scan response and request features of Bluetooth Core Specifications, a mechanism for the detection of nearby user smartphones is proposed. Furthermore, we present an energy consumption model of the proposed firmware, along with an optimization problem for finding the optimal configuration that minimizes the overall energy consumption and overhead induced by switching delay. Last but not least, we introduce a prototype of the User-B firmware and demonstrate experiments. Through the experiments, we prove that the User-B firmware can extend a beacon’s lifetime up to 250% under low user-existence frequency and high energy demand application conditions.

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K. E. Jeon and J. She, "User Existence-aware BLE Beacon Firmware for Extended Battery Lifetime," 2019 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), Marrakesh, Morocco, 2019, pp. 1-6.